Religion and Paleontology

Religion and Paleontology

In the history of religion, the universe is only 6,000 years old. The first human is only about 6,000 years and one day old. The sun, moon, and stars are only 6,000 years and two days old. (According to the Bible, the sun, moon, and stars were created two days before man).

 

Paleontology goes back to the earliest life forms that science can determine – the origin of life on earth.

In religion, the earth came into existence sometime before creation. It was the only physical body floating in the entire space of nothingness. God decided to put the earth to use by preparing it for life. In six days, all life forms appeared, including the most admirable of all creatures, man and his wife.

In religion – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the dinosaurs never existed because they are not mentioned in the Bible. Other Hominins. Every 5-year old boy and some girls, know about T-res. Children love T-rex. Their bones have been discovered all over the world, and many mounted in natural history museums all over.

Below are pictures of the T-rex dinosaur skeleton mounted in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C. The picture is courtesy of Kwadwo Obeng

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods

Nyasasaurus parringtoni

The oldest dinosaur has been found in Africa and dated to about 240 million years old.

Nyasasaurus parringtoni (nye-AS-suh-SORE-us) was the earliest-known dinosaur, living about 243 million years ago during the Mid-Triassic in what is now Tanzania. It grew to be about 10 feet (3 meters) long, and was a very early prosauropod – https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Nyasasaurus.

Paleontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

The oldest dinosaur has been found in Africa and dated to about 240 million years old.

Nyasasaurus parringtoni (nye-AS-suh-SORE-us) was the earliest-known dinosaur, living about 243 million years ago during the Mid-Triassic in what is now Tanzania. It grew to be about 10 feet (3 meters) long, and was a very early prosauropod – https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Nyasasaurus

Paleontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which living and fossil organisms evolved, from the earliest emergence of life to the present. Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago and evidence suggests life emerged prior to 3.7 Ga. The similarities among all known present-day species indicate that they have diverged through the process of evolution from a common ancestor. Approximately 1 trillion species currently live on Earth of which only 1.75–1.8 million have been named and 1.6 million documented in a central database. These currently living species represent less than one percent of all species that have ever lived on earth.

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. In biology, evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, from kingdoms to species, and individual organisms and molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species,[1] that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.[2][3] Estimates on the number of Earth’s current species range from 10 million to 14 million,[4] of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.[5] However, a May 2016 scientific report estimates that 1 trillion species are currently on Earth, with only one-thousandth of one percent described. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_evolutionary_history_of_life

The subject of paleontology is one that religion steers clear of. The history of paleontology goes contrary to the history of the universe promoted in religion. If a person limits his/her source of information only to the Bible or Koran, they would have cheated themselves from a vast storehouse of knowledge that abounds in the world today.

Religion closes one’s mind to scientific truths and limits our view of the world to the views of people who lived 2-3,000 years ago. With that knowledge, it is difficult to make advancements in this world of information technology and science.

Paleontologists at Work in the Field and in the Laboratory

Dinosaurs in Africa

Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds.

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=dinosaurs&qpvt=dinoaurs&FORM=IARRSM

List of African dinosaurs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Wikipedia list article

This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from Africa. Africa has a rich fossil record, but it is patchy and incomplete. It is rich in Triassic and Early Jurassic dinosaurs. African dinosaurs from these time periods include Coelophysis, Dracovenator, Melanorosaurus, Massospondylus, Euskelosaurus, Heterodontosaurus, Abrictosaurus, and Lesothosaurus. In the Middle Jurassic, the sauropods Atlasaurus, Chebsaurus, Jobaria, and Spinophorosaurus, flourished, as well as the theropod Afrovenator. The Late Jurassic is well represented in Africa, mainly thanks to the spectacular Tendaguru Formation. Veterupristisaurus, Ostafrikasaurus, Elaphrosaurus, Giraffatitan, Dicraeosaurus, Janenschia, Tornieria, Tendaguria, Kentrosaurus, and Dysalotosaurus are among the dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from Tendaguru. This fauna seems to show strong similarities to that of the Morrison Formation in the United States and the Lourinha Formation in Portugal. For example, similar theropods, ornithopods and sauropods have been found in both the Tendaguru and the Morrison. This has important biogeographical implications.

The Early Cretaceous in Africa is known primarily from the northern part of the continent, particularly Niger. Suchomimus, Elrhazosaurus, Rebbachisaurus, Nigersaurus, Kryptops, Nqwebasaurus, and Paranthodon are some of the Early Cretaceous dinosaurs known from Africa. The Early Cretaceous was an important time for the dinosaurs of Africa because it was when Africa finally separated from South America, forming the South Atlantic Ocean. This was an important event because now the dinosaurs of Africa started developing endemism because of isolation. The Late Cretaceous of Africa is known mainly from North Africa. During the early part of the Late Cretaceous, North Africa was home to a rich dinosaur fauna. It includes Spinosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, Rugops, Bahariasaurus, Deltadromeus, Paralititan, Aegyptosaurus, and Ouranosaurus.

  1. Nyasasaurus in Africa Dated 240 million years

Nyasasaurus is an extinct genus of dinosauriform reptile from the Middle Triassic Manda Formation of Tanzania that appears to be the earliest known dinosaur. The type species Nyasasaurus parringtoni was first described in 1956 in the doctoral thesis of English paleontologist Alan J. Charig, but it was not formally described until 2013. Previously, the oldest record of dinosaurs was from Argentina and dated back to the late Carnian stage, about 231.4 million years ago. Nyasasaurus comes from a deposit that dates back to the Anisian stage, meaning that it predates other early dinosaurs by about 12 million years.

Spinosaurus

By Ryan Somma – https://www.flickr.com/photos/ideonexus/15879079738/in/album-72157649438121619/, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64908156

Spinosaurus (meaning “spine lizard”) is a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa during the upper Albian to upper Turonian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 93.5 million years ago. This genus was known first from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in the early 21st century. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco. The contemporary spinosaurid genus Sigilmassasaurus has also been synonymized by some authors with S. aegyptiacus, though other researchers propose it to be a distinct taxon. Another possible junior synonym is Oxalaia from the Alcântara Formation in Brazil.

 

Spinosaurus was among the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, nearly as large as or even larger than other theropods such as Tyrannosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus. Estimates published in 2005, 2007, and 2008 suggested that it was between 12.6–18 metres (41–59 ft) in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes (7.7 to 23.0 short tons) in weight.[2][3][4] New estimates published in 2014 and 2018, based on a more complete specimen, supported the earlier research, finding that Spinosaurus could reach lengths of 15–16 m (49–52 ft).

By Mike Bowler from Canada – Spinosaurus, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36582299

Spinosaurus marocannus jaw fossil (MNHN SAM 124), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.

By Bramfab – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12003903

By Андрей Белов – https://www.deviantart.com/abelov2014/art/Spinosauridae-773270478, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=74692724

The 'Dino-Brexit': Ancient animals sparked Europe’s first migration crisis

SOME 125 million years ago, dinosaurs started leaving Europe, sparking the continents first migration crisis and no one knows why.

By Sean Martin

PUBLISHED: 15:54, Mon, Apr 25, 2016 | UPDATED: 16:17, Mon, Apr 25, 2016

In the early Cretaceous period, between 125 and 120 million years ago, researchers discovered that dinosaurs began moving away from Europe.

A team of scientists from the University of Leeds created a computer model of the fossil record of dinosaurs to figure out their migration pattern up until their extinction 65 million years ago.

They found that there was a mass exodus of dinosaurs between 125 and 120m years ago while no new species were moving in.

Lead author of the study published in the Journal of Biogeography, Dr Alex Dunhill, of Leeds University, said: “This is a curious result that has no concrete explanation.

“It might be a real migratory pattern or it may be an artefact of the incomplete and sporadic nature of the dinosaur fossil record.”

At the time, much of the Earth’s land mass was connected as part of a supercontinent known as Pangaea, but it was beginning to separate due to tectonic activity, which was also confirmed by the study.

Dr Dunhill continued: “We presume that temporary land bridges formed due to changes in sea levels, temporarily reconnecting the continents.

GETTY

The dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago

Found in Tanzania

By Shadowgate from Novara, ITALY – Museum für Naturkunde, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=63426413

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sauropod dinosaur genus from the late Jurassic Period

Giraffatitan (name meaning “titanic giraffe“) is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period (KimmeridgianTithonian stages). It was originally named as an African species of Brachiosaurus (B. brancai), but this has since been changed. Giraffatitan was for many decades known as the largest dinosaur but recent discoveries of several larger dinosaurs prove otherwise; giant titanosaurians appear to have surpassed Giraffatitan in terms of sheer mass. Also, the sauropod dinosaur Sauroposeidon is estimated to be taller and possibly heavier than Giraffatitan.

All size estimates for Giraffatitan are based on the specimen HMN SII, a subadult individual between 21.8–22.5 metres (72–74 ft) in length and about 12 meters (39 ft) tall. Mass estimates are varied and range from as little as 15 tonnes (17 short tons) to as much as 78.3 tonnes (86.3 short tons) but there is evidence supporting that these animals could grow larger; specimen HMN XV2, represented by a fibula 13% larger than the corresponding material on HMN SII, might have attained 26 metres (85 ft) in length or longer.[2]